Thursday, December 12, 2019
Organic Compounds free essay sample
Organic compound From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Methane is one of the simplest organic compoundsAn organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. For historical reasons discussed below, a few types of carbon-containing compounds such as carbonates, simple oxides of carbon and cyanides, as well as the allotropes of carbon such as diamond and graphite, are considered inorganic. The distinction between organic and inorganic carbon compounds, while useful in organizing he vast subject of chemistry s somewhat arbitrary .  Organic chemistry is the science concerned with all aspects of organic compounds. Organic synthesis is the methodology of their preparation. Contents [hide] 1 History 1. 1 Vitalism 1. 2 Modern classification 2 Classification 2. 1 Natural compounds 2. 2 Synthetic compounds 3 Nomenclature 4 Databases 5 Structure determination 6 See also 7 References 8 External links  History  Vitalism The name organic is historical, dating back to the 1st century.  For any centuries, Western alchemists believed in vitalism. This is the theory that certain compounds could only be synthesized from their classical elements Ã¢â¬ Earth, Water, Air and Fire Ã¢â¬ by action of a life-force (vis vitals) possessed only by organisms. Vitalism taught that these organic compounds were fundamentally different from the inorganic compounds that could be obtained from the elements by chemical manipulation. Vitalism survived for a while even after the rise of modern atomic theory and the replacement of the Aristotelian elements by those we know today. It first came under to occur only in living organisms, from cyanogen.  A more decisive experiment was Wohlers 1828 synthesis of urea from the inorganic salts potassium cyanate and ammonium sulfate. Urea had long been considered to be an organic compound as it was known to occur only in the urine of living organisms. Wohlers experiments were followed by many others, where increasingly complex organic substances were produced from inorganic ones without the involvement of any living organism.   Modern classification Even after vitalism had been disproved, the distinction between organic and inorganic compounds has been retained through the present. The modern meaning of organic compound is any one of them that contains a significant amount of carbon even though many of the organic compounds known today have no connection whatsoever with any substance found in living organisms. There is no official definition of an organic compound. Some text books define an organic compound as one containing one or more C-H bonds; others include C-C onds in the definition. Others state that if a molecule contains carbon it is organic. Even the broader definition of carbon-containing molecules requires the exclusion of carbon-containing alloys (including steel), a relatively small number of carbon- containing compounds such as metal carbonates and carbonyls, simple oxides of carbon and cyanides, as well as the allotropes of carbon and simple carbon halides and sulfides, which are usually considered to be inorganic. The C-H definition excludes compounds which are historically and practically onsidered to be organic. Neither urea nor oxalic acid are organic by this definition, yet they were two key compounds in the vitalism debate. The IIJPAC Blue Book on organic nomenclature specifically mentions urea and oxalic acid.  Other compounds lacking C-H bonds that are also traditionally considered to be organic include benzenehexol, mesoxalic acid, and carbon tetrachloride. Mellitic acid, which contains no C-H bonds, is considered to be a possible organic substance in Martian soil. All do, however, contain C-C bonds.  The C-H bond only rule also leads to somewhat arbitrary divisions in sets of carbon- fluorine compounds, as for example Teflon is considered by this rule inorganic but Tefzel organic; similarly many Halons are considered inorganic while the rest are organic. For these and other reasons, most sources consider C-H compounds to be only a subset of organic compounds. To summarize: Most carbon-containing compounds are organic, and most compounds with a C-H bond are organic. Not all organic compounds necessarily contain C-H bonds (e. g. urea). See Classification of organic compounds Organic compounds may be classified in a variety of ways. One major distinction is between natural and synthetic compounds. Organic compounds can also be classified or subdivided by the presence of heteroatoms, e. g. organometallic compounds which feature bonds between carbon and a metal, and organophosphorus compounds which feature bonds between carbon and a phosphorus. Another distinction, based upon the size of organic compounds, distinguishes between small molecules and polymers.  Natural compounds Natural compounds refer to those that are produced by plants or animals. Many of these are still extracted from natural sources because they would be far too expensive to be produced artificially. Examples include most sugars, some alkaloids and terpenoids, certain nutrients such as vitamin 812, and in general, those natural products with large or stereoisometrically complicated molecules present in reasonable concentrations in living organisms. Further compounds of prime importance in biochemistry are antigens, carbohydrates, enzymes, hormones, lipids and fatty acids, neurotransmitters, nucleic cids, proteins, peptides and amino acids, lectins, vitamins and fats and oils. edit] Synthetic compounds Compounds that are prepared by reaction of other compounds are referred to as synthetic. They may be either compounds that already are found in plants or animals (semi synthetic compounds), or those that do not occur naturally. Most polymers (a category which includes all plastics and rubbers), are organic compounds.  Nomenclature The IUPAC nomenclature o f organic compounds slightly differs from the CAS nomenclature.  Databases The CAS database is the most comprehensive repository for data on organic compounds. The search tool SciFinder is offered. The Beilstein database contains information on 9. 8 million substances, covers the scientific literature from 1771 to the present, and is today accessible via Crossfire. Structures and a large diversity of physical and chemical properties is available for each substance, with reference to original literature. PubChem contains 18. 4 million entries on compounds and especially covers the field of medicinal chemistry.