Thursday, January 30, 2020
Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, and Drugs Essay Example for Free
Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, and Drugs Essay In the time span of only one year, roughly seven percent of Americans suffer from some form of a mood disorder (Mood Disorders, n. d. ). The typical person is able to experience moods on all levels but those that suffer from mood disorders get Ã¢â¬Å"stuckÃ¢â¬ into a certain mood (Mood Disorders, n. d. ). There are different mood disorders and each one can have differing levels of how much one suffers from it. Anxiety disorders are when anxiety is the predominant feature or the avoidance of the anxiety causes abnormal behavior (Morris, 2010). Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorder. There are many categories, or subdivisions, of anxiety disorders including specific phobias and panic disorders (Morris, 2010). Schizophrenic disorders are very serious disorders in which the individual experiences a disturbance in thoughts, emotions, communications, and can also experience hallucinations and delusions (Morris, 2010). Bulimia nervosa and tourettes syndrome are also psychological disorders that can be helped through medication. Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder in which the individual is experiencing bouts of both mania and depression in an alternating cycle (Morris, 2010). There can be bursts of normal feelings interspersed between these bouts of mania and depression. Studies have shown that bipolar disorder affects both men and women equally unlike depression which favors the women. Studies have also shown that bipolar disorder is not as common as depression (Morris, 2010). While depression and mania on their own can be linked to outside factors, bipolar disorder is certain to be a biological disturbance, usually genetic, and therefore medication is most likely needed to treat it (Morris, 2010). To treat this form of depression there are four classes of medication that can help (Pinel, 2009). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as Iproniazid, increase the levels of monoamines in the body, alleviating the mood of the patient (Pinel, 2009). The problem with medications such as these is that there are many side effects and some can be quite serious. The most serious being the deactivation of tyramine in the body which can lead to surges in blood pressure which, in turn, cause a stroke in the patient (MAOIÃ¢â¬â¢s: Side Effects, n. d. ). Tricyclic antidepressants are another medication route that those suffering from bipolar disorder can take. These medications are much safer than monoamine oxidase inhibitors (Pinel, 2009). Tricyclic antidepressants may, in the beginning of taking the medication, cause the individual to have problems with sleeping, to feel tired more than usual, and can cause nausea (United States National Library of Medicine, 2012). Up until recently, the medication of choice to help those with bipolar disorder was lithium (Pinel, 2009). Lithium is not an antidepressant but rather a mood stabilizer that aids in the transition between mania and depression (Pinel, 2009). Unfortunately there are many side effects that can come from taking lithium which can include loss of appetite, indigestion, swollen lips, hair loss, stomach pain, joint and muscle pain, and many other minor side effects (United States National Library of Medicine, 2012). There are also many serious side effects that may occur. Loss of coordination, seizures, slurred speech, blackouts, hallucinations, and crossed eyes are only some of the more serious side effects that may occur when using lithium (United States National Library of Medicine, 2012). Selective monoamine-reuptake inhibitors are a fourth type of medication that those who suffer from bipolar disorder may use. These types of medication aid in raising serotonin levels in the body. Side effects from these types of drugs include nausea, tremors, drowsiness, dizziness, sexual side effects, and, in rare cases, cardiovascular problems may arise (Ferguson, 2001). Panic disorder is a branch out of anxiety disorder and those who suffer from it have recurring panic attacks where they experience sudden and unreasonable extreme fears or terrors (Morris, 2010). When having a panic attack the individual may experience chest pains, sweating, fainting or dizziness, difficulty breathing and swallowing, feelings of something horrible about to happen or of losing control, and can even fear that they are dying (Morris, 2010). Medications that can be used to help those suffering from panic disorders include benzodiazepines, serotonin agonists, and antidepressant drugs (Pinel, 2009). Benzodiazepines help by relaxing the individual but do carry side effects like tremors, nausea, sedation, problems in motor activity (Pinel, 2009). Serotonin agonists are not fully understood how they help but it is known that anti-anxiety feelings without causing a rebound anxiety episode (Pinel, 2009). Common side effects of this drug include nausea, insomnia, headaches, and dizziness (Pinel, 2009). Antidepressants, as described earlier, can also help with panic disorders and carry the same side effects in the individual as when taken for depressive disorders. Schizophrenic disorders are very serious disorders in which the individual experiences a disturbance in thoughts, emotions, communications, and can also experience hallucinations and delusions (Morris, 2010). Disorganized schizophrenia is when an individual shows signs of often bizarre and childlike behaviors (Morris, 2010). The cause of this disorder is still unknown but it is known that it typically begins before the age of twenty-five (Schizophrenia-Disorganized Type, 2010). There are many symptoms of this disorder and they include difficulty feeling pleasure, speech that does not make any sense, any motivation, delusional beliefs, hallucinations, committing strange and sometimes silly behavior, and inappropriate or bizarre emotional responses (Ã¢â¬Å"Schizophrenia-Disorganized Type, 2010). Treatment is limited but when experiencing an episode of disorganized schizophrenia it is imperative that the individual is hospitalized for the safety of his or herself and the safety of others. Treatment can consist of antipsychotic medications, clozapine medication, and support groups or programs (United States National Library of Medicine, 2012). Those who suffer this disorder suffer from it for life. Bulimia nervosa is when an individual will binge eat and then force themselves to rid of the intake by forcing themselves to vomit. While there is no specific known cause of bulimia nervosa there are some theories of what may cause this disorder in an individual including culture, families, life changes, stress, personality, and even biological factors. To treat bulimia nervosa there has been only one drug approved by the Unites States Food and Drug Administration and that is the use of some antidepressants as this has shown to aid in reducing binging and purging as well as aid in improving eating habits (Bulimia Nervosa Fact Sheets, 2009). TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome is a fairly common disorder that has the individual suffering from it having uncontrollable tics such as blinking, coughing, and, on rare occasions, blurting out inappropriate words (Pinel, 2009). There is no known cause for this syndrome and, while it usually forms in childhood, many individuals will outgrow it over time (United States National Library of Medicine, 2012). Treatment can include antipsychotics which can help in reducing the tics. However, side effects of this include developing tardive dyskinesia, a movement disorder that affects the lower part of the face (Treatment, 2011). While there are thousands of individuals that suffer some sort of psychological disorders all over the world, there is help out there for those in need. While most medication carries some side effects it is up to both the individual and the prescribing doctor to determine if the benefits of using the medication outweigh the side effects that might occur.